Central State Hospital (CSH), Milledgeville, Georgia
Central State Hospital in Milledgeville, GA – the tragic and heroic true story of one of the largest mental institutions in the United States. Written by Craig Dominey.
Take a Photo Tour of Central State Hospital
“You best behave yourself or I’m sending you to Milledgeville!”
If you are a Georgia native of a certain age, a scolding like this from your parents would make your blood run cold. You knew they weren’t talking about the charming, former state capital of Georgia with its grand antebellum homes and buildings, towering oak trees and vibrant universities. They were talking about the sprawling, ominous institution just a couple of miles up the road, these days officially known as Central State Hospital, once one of the largest mental hospitals in the United States.
Driving around the largely empty and decrepit campus there is an eerie calm that belies its often chaotic past, when it was overrun with patients committed for all manner of mental afflictions, rightly or wrongly. On the front side of campus, once-majestic buildings of Gothic-like architecture sit decaying on the edges of a shady pecan grove, their roofs rotted and collapsed in spots, paint peeling off the moldy walls, thick vines snaking into shattered windows. On the back side, more institutional-looking brick buildings dot the rolling hillsides which once were farmed by patients both as treatment and servitude. Acres af empty fields are thought to hold the remains of thousands of unidentified patients, many forever lost.
Many believe Central State Hospital is haunted – not by one particular ghost or horrific event, but a compounding of many years of suffering. But while ghost hunters and fans of the macabre may flock to its buildings, the real story of Central State Hospital is also one of good intentions and heroism, and serves as a mirror of this country’s changing attitudes toward the mentally afflicted.
Up until the early 19th century, mental illness was a misunderstood disease. Many felt lunacy was the result of demonic possession, with punishment by God or man the only treatment. People diagnosed (or misdiagnosed) as lunatics were often thrown in prison, shunned in communities, farmed out as virtual slaves or simply the dirty secret best kept at home.
These attitudes were beginning to change in the United States in 1834 when Georgia governor Wilson Lumpkin, addressing public concern for the plight of those afflicted, fought for state care of the “idiots, lunatics and insane.” With approval of the Georgia House and Senate, a lunacy commission was created. Among the first commission members were an influential group of physicians from Milledgeville, then the state capital and the epicenter of wealth and power. Riding through Milledgeville at the time, it would be common to find the streets lined with cotton bales from surrounding farms, waiting for shipment downriver to the Georgia port of Darien on the Atlantic Ocean.
The Milledgeville physicians influenced the state legislature to authorize the creation of a “State Lunatic, Idiot, and Epileptic Asylum” on December 28, 1837, the first institution of its kind to treat all three afflictions. A 40 acre plot of land two miles south of Milledgeville was purchased for $4000, due to its proximity to the state capital and the physicians’ practices, plus its centralized location in the state. Five years later, the Governor placed the hospital in control of trustees and appointed its first superintendent, Dr. David Cooper. These trustees were only reimbursed for their everyday expenses, as it was felt that small salaries would not attract a high calibre of physician. Trustees could look upon hospital work as a public service, meaning physicians like Dr. Cooper could also carry on their private practices in Milledgeville while overseeing the institution.
The first buildings were typical brick structures with wood roofs, 3-4 floors each. Each floor had around 20 rooms with glass windows and cast iron fixed window sashes, opening into an airy hallway. The buildings were lit by lamps and torches. Men lived in the first two floors, women in the top floors and supervised by a matron. Slave attendants and servants lived in the basement next to the large iron stove that heated the building. Eight staff members managed he entire institution.
The first patients came with a variety of mental disorders, from hallucinations brought about by religious fervor to paranoia, depression and alcoholism. Georgia residents deemed lunatics, idiots or epileptics had to first stand trial before a jury that would include at least one physician. If found to be a danger to the community, a legal record was made and they would be sent away to the hospital in chains. Patients needing calming were put in special blue-colored rooms – and if the soothing color wasn’t enough, they were chained to a chair in the corner to make sure.
Dr. Cooper applied the then-radical model of the “institution as family,” feeling that patients were best treated by an extended family of strangers rather than at home where their conditions were misunderstood, or emotional attachments would keep them from being cured. Rather than being locked up in cells, patients were encouraged to work in the garden, field or workshop and gain a sense of usefulness.
Another prominent Milledgeville physician named Dr. Thomas A Green was selected to be the second superintendent in 1845, and he built upon the “institution as family” model. New patients would frequently arrive at the institution in horrible condition – beaten, filthy and in shackles. Dr. Green made it a personal ritual to release these shackles as soon as the patients arrived, essentially giving them a new level of freedom within the institution. He regularly ate with staff and patients, and abolished further physical restraints. Of the 200 patients admitted, only a small number had to be kept in isolation. Even when the institution was starting to become overcrowded, Dr. Green also had a reputation for not turning people away.
From the early days, funding the hospital was a challenge. At first it was believed that the hospital could be partially self-sustaining by admitting pay patients, but this was soon seen as untenable. Dr. Green asked for more state money to complete the hospital, build a library and chapel, and purchase more land. Shortly thereafter, with the Civil War ravaging the state’s cotton economy, families could no longer pay for treatment of their loved ones, raising operational costs and leaving the hospital’s financial fate even more in the hands of the political machine.
By the time Union General William T. Sherman marched through Georgia, destroying nearly everything in his path, the hospital was already in dire straits. Though Sherman spared the hospital, it now had little support from the defeated state. Dr. Green continued to take in refugees from other Southern states where hospitals were in Federal hands. With the able-bodied off to war, older and infirm staff could hardly handle patient care. Supplies were scarce, and Dr. Green resorted to scouring the countryside for food and money, and selling off what little the hospital had for cash.
Another challenge from the South’s defeat was the increasing black patient population freed by the war. Though not as segregated as other institutions, the hospital had no separate buildings for black patients as required by law, leaving them to sleep outside on hospital grounds. In 1866 the first “colored only” building was built on campus, the start of an eventual second campus (which in later years would be repurposed as a state prison).
By 1872, 448 patients were being treated by 4 doctors at the hospital with an annual budget of $100,000. To try to control the population, Dr. Green only admitted non-violent patients and would put 2-3 together in small, 10-12 foot rooms. Dr. Green believed that the earlier patients were treated (1 year or less), the more successful treatment would be and the patients could be returned home. But despite his best efforts, the explosion in new patients was just beginning.
Dr. Theophilus Powell, assistant physician to Dr. Green and a noted scholar of psychiatry, became superintendent in 1874 and immediately inherited the growing issue of patient overcrowding. The asylum had become a dumping ground not just for the truly insane, but for communities looking to get rid of their unwanted (alcoholics, criminals, the elderly) and for those who simply had nowhere else to go. Three years later, a law passed making the asylum free for all state citizens. Part of this reasoning was undoubtedly due to political pressure – legislators were keen on taking care of patients from their home districts, while Milledgeville lawmakers wanted to keep the facility constantly in business for their friends who worked there.
Dr. Powell and his staff developed more accurate methods of diagnosis to try to keep the population manageable. In 1886 a law passed allowing patients to be returned home who were deemed incurable but harmless, to make room for those who could be treated. Dr. Powell also continued the work, exercise and amusement programs for patients. An on-site railroad station and construction of a new hospital building led to a flood of new patient applications.
At the dawn of the 20th century, overcrowding had become a major problem at the facility now renamed the Georgia State Sanitarium. By 1910 there were 3347 patients cared for by 12 physicians. Decrease in care was inevitable, with numerous reports of abuse, neglect, unsanitary facilities and seclusion rooms surfacing. Patients could only expect their basic needs to be taken care of, with staff unable to provide appropriate treatment for their illnesses. Many patients whose mental state was diagnosed as “unclassified” were simply lost in the system, leading to many stories in later years – some true, others just folktales – of loved ones vanishing in the bowels of the sanitarium.
Farm work was still considered a helpful activity for the patients. 800 acres of nearby farmland took care of the facility’s food needs, and were strenuously farmed by the patients. Even though this program offered little in the way of actual treatment, it developed and nurtured job skills that the patients could use back home when discharged.
In 1921 the segregation of black patients came to an end, but racial tension was still a reality in the community at large. Four years later the first reported murder of a staff member at the hands of patients occurred when Amy Oxford, a popular nurse, was struck in back of the head with an axe handle by a black patient, who then returned to work quietly. As news spread, the local townspeople forced their way into the building where the patient was in seclusion and killed him in the same manner.
“Shock treatment makes you forget what you want to remember and remember what you want to forget.”
Georgia State Sanitarium changed its name again in 1929 to Milledgeville State Hospital, a reflection of society’s evolving views toward the mentally ill and treatment. By now the hospital had become a small city, with 6000 patients in treatment (600 per physician) and a waiting list of 1500. Many buildings were deteriorating and had become fire traps. In response, the hospital was expanded to include 132 more acres, four new hospital buildings made of brick and modern interiors were built, plus a dedicated tuberculosis ward.
But poor state financing and draining of able-bodied staff during World War II meant that radical treatment was needed to stem the unrelenting tide of patients.
By the 1940s, Milledgeville State Hospital had over 10,000 patients averaging 20 year residencies. Attendants and nurses worked 60-70 hour weeks, with nurses making around $74 dollars a month. It was estimated at the time that thousands of these patients could have been sent home as harmless. Many patients claimed to have been “railroaded” into the institution by others, for various reasons.
To combat the untenable conditions, more radical forms of treatment such as insulin shock and electroshock therapy (also known as electroconvulsive therapy or ECT) became commonplace. Electroshocks were done on a mass assembly basis and at the discretion of staff. Patients were frequently confused if shocks were being given as treatment or punishment, and afterwards would be walked back to the day room in a stupor. While hospital chaos died down thanks to this treatment, memory loss in patients was common, unpredictable and sometimes permanent – helping wipe out, as some advocates noted, any memories of abuse.
Lobotomies were introduced in 1951 for chronic cases. 125 severely ill patients were given the treatment, of which only 24 were able to return home, with an unknown number becoming even worse.
Atlanta newspapers ran frequent articles on patient abuse and deteriorating hospital conditions, becoming one of the few advocates patients had. As it had been throughout its history, Milledgeville State Hospital continued to be influenced by state politics, with the board pressured by politicians to appoint staff as political favors, and patient levels kept high for economic profit.
In the 1960s the now-renamed Central State Hospital had over 12,000 patients and vied with Pilgrim State Hospital in New York as the largest facility in the country.
“Rows upon rows of numbered, small, rusted markers as far as you can see. No names, just numbers. It must be the most gruesome sight in Georgia. Unknown humans, shunned when living, deprived of their very name in death – and literally known only to God.”
While some patients treated at Central State Hospital eventually returned home, many did not, literally disappearing into the earth. Today what looks like pastoral, rolling fields are actually the secret burial grounds for tens of thousands of patients, many feared to be lost forever.
As far back as 1938, a cemetery for African-American patients was dug up to make room for a new building. Their bodies were disinterred and, with the caskets long disintegrated, placed into small boxes and moved closer together, marked only by simple metal poles with identification numbers. The use of these numbered poles instead of headstones was a common and macabre burial method on hospital grounds. It is believed that around 30,000 patients are buried at Central State Hospital in six neglected cemeteries, making it one of the largest graveyards in the world for people with mental disabilities.
In the 1960s, groundskeepers tossed thousands of these numbered markers into the woods without recording their locations, leaving the graves forever unmarked. Other markers were lost in underbrush, and as memories faded it was no longer clear where the true boundaries of the burial areas were.
In response, groups of volunteers like the Georgia Consumer Council worked to identify as many graves and patients as possible. Some recovered markers were placed in a special memorial. State and national media covered their efforts, and donations began trickling in. To help the fundraising effort, Dr. Peter Cranford, a former clinical psychologist at Central State Hospital, donated the printing rights to his book “But For The Grace of God: The Inside Story of the World’s Largest Insane Asylum,” recognized as the definitive history of the institution.
With improved medications, home treatment, construction of new facilities statewide and less stigma toward mental disabilities, the need for a massive and crowded institution like Central State Hospital died away and the population dropped dramatically. As of this writing only 300 patients remain, soon to be reduced to around 180 patients who have been committed by the courts.
Once one of Milledgeville’s top employers, Central State Hospital’s downsizing has been an economic blow to the community. Tasked with finding a use for this 1750-acre campus, the State of Georgia created the Central State Hospital Local Redevelopment Authority (CSHLRA) to (according to their website) “bring life back to the Campus through an array of economic development tools while establishing strategic partnerships locally, at the State of Georgia and at the Federal level of government.” A church, small technology firm and a school are looking to use small sections of the property. Efforts to save some of the decaying historical buildings are underway. Film and television location scouts have also become frequent visitors.
While visits to the hospital grounds are encouraged, unauthorized break-ins into the buildings are closely monitored and highly dangerous in spots. If you’d like to tour Central State Hospital, follow the map below and contact the Central State Hospital Local Redevelopment Authority (CSHRA):
Quotations 2-3 (and much research material) courtesy of:
Peter G. Cranford, But for the Grace of God: The Inside Story of the World’s Largest Insane Asylum, Milledgeville (Augusta, Ga.: Great Pyramid Press, 1981).
Special thanks to Kari Brown for helping with this article and providing photo descriptions.
Website for the Central State Hospital Local Redevelopment Authority (CSHRA), which hosts tours of the facility.
The Kingston Lounge:
Beautiful photo gallery of abandoned buildings at CSH.
A Real American Horror Story – Weather Channel video on the effects weather has had on the old buildings.
You can help keep the stories coming by making a donation to The Moonlit Road.com. Large or small, any amount helps!
80 Responses to “Central State Hospital (CSH), Milledgeville, Georgia”
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Thank you for the very informative article. Some of the names mentioned in it were kind of familiar to me because both of my parents were employed by CSH for most of their “working lives.” My father worked in at least two or three buildings – my mother, in two, also. I can recall only their last jobs…my father was an accountant there in the Lawrence building, and, my mother was an HST the Allen Building. Both are deceased, now, but they told me and my siblings many true stories about CSH. I also have a lot of memories about the buildings and the cafeteria as my father would sometimes bring food home for our supper. I also went on a school field trip in the fourth or fifth grade, back in 1972 or 1973. I forget the exact year, but, remember the trip “as if it was yesterday.” Thank you again for the article!
Thanks, Curtrice – I bet you have some interesting stories to tell!
Yes, this is a terrific and informative article! Love the pictures too.
My mother was a nurse here in the Arnold building. I can remember some of the photos and my dad drove the white transportation buses on the grounds and transported patients later back and to to Thomasville, Ga. I can relate to this story very well, enjoyed reading about what you all had to say…Thanks
Thank You for sharing. My family roots are deeply entwined in the history of Central State Hospital. My grandmother worked in the Jones Hospital, my mother grew up on the outskirts of CSH in the Hardwick Community. My mother and father met at a dance at Central State Hospital. My father was a patient at CSH in 1964 and again in 1971. My father should have never been released from the hospital, my parents should have never met or allowed to marry. I have so many questions but no one wants to talk about the DEEP DARK SECRETS OF CENTRAL STATE HOSPITAL
I loved reading this. My Grandmother was sent there for a short time probably 25 years ago. I just remember the buildings being overwhelming! I didn’t know you could tour the buildings. Very neat to know.
Jan Smith Davis:
I am floored at the numbers listed here! So many!!! And a railroad station on-site?!!! I do not really understand how people went unaccounted for, though. If they were placed as a result of a court order or diagnosis, were there not records for each admission?
Growing up in Milledgeville I remember most all of the budings and pictures in your article. I roamed the grounds several times. We even playing high school basketball games in the gym. Now that I grown and have a famy of my own I have taken them to visit the grounds and told them many stories! Very interesting then and still is. I remember the gift shop the patients made things for and even have a wedding gift from there that was given to me!
Thanks for the wonderful read!
Very informative article. I remember some of the names from stories my father told me when I was a child. He ran the morgue at CSH for 16 years before it was bidded out to private funeral homes in the early 80’s.
Thank you for this article. i grew up in milledgeville.. then married and lived a stones throw away from it.. i find the history on it fascinating.. my brother is skitsophrenic and has visited this hospital for treatment for as long as i can remember. that hospital has done a great many things. thank you very much
I worked in the Yarbrough Building in the early 1970s. Amazing article.
I was a patient in the Adolescent Ward in 1975 and then moved to the Yarborough building. Distinctly remember alot of activities in the school, ward and Yarborough building that have remained unspoken. Remember Bart Martindale, the school psychologist paricularly. My crime? Runaway from home.
i loved reading this . i love anything with history. ive been by the csh many times from living so close by and my great aunt working there . altough she never wanted to talk about her job there . it seem to give her the chills when i would ask about it . thanks again
Is there any way to access medical records of a deceased family member that was sent there in the 1950- 1960s and also died there?
Rebecca, I don’t know how good their record keeping is. I think a lot of things are in storage. You may wish to contact the organization we link to in the article and see if they can forward you to the proper people.
still waiting to receive my Great grandfathers medical records. I was called over a month ago. Hoping it will give more insight on his final days and condition.
Good article. I was born and raised in Milledgeville. My family and I lived very close to the hospital grounds. I remember my friends and I riding our bikes around the hospital grounds, marveling at the buildings, the acreage, and the activites we saw taking place. Most of my family worked at the hospital and retired from there. I also had a Post traumatic stressful grandmother and 2 mentally retarded aunts admitted there for a while for treatment. I grew up, became a nurse and worked there too. The hospital not only offered job security to many in the community but it also offered intensive treatment and extracurricular activities to its clients. Now that the hospital is closed, I can’t imagine whats happening to all those clients who really need long term treatment and a sense of family that understands their needs.
My mother and father worked at the hospital my mother retired from the hospital and so did several of my ants and cusions If you worked there you had medical care provided so guess what I was bore there in the jones building I also worked there for a while so living in Hardwick I have a lot of memories of the place to bad its just falling down hope the state can come for some good use for it
Thank you for this well-written article. I appreciate the way you communicated the history without over-dramatizing. My grandmother was a resident for more than 20 years. In the mid-1980’s CSH was the only facility in the area that would accept Alzheimer’s patients. It is amazing how much changed at the hospital from that time until her death in 1996. When she entered, the atmosphere was very much a “ward” with heavy metal doors, stark visiting areas, and strict rules. It felt like an “institution” when I visited her. However, as time went by and the status of the hospital changed to a nursing home, the atmosphere changed, too. Some of the buildings were updated and remodeled. The last building she was in (I don’t remember the names now) was nice and felt like a good place to be. We were free to visit in her room, and we could help feed her when we were there. The Nursing staff was very caring.
No one wants to have to send away a family member, but for my family CSH was a godsend when we had no way of giving our loved one the care she needed.
hey there, thanks for the great blog entry! an amazing place indeed. my last record was conceptually inspired/informed by this place. find out more here, if anyone’s interested: http://www.marktulk.com/
Dr. Wm. L. Wiley:
Sad. So very, very sad.
The photo showing the iron stakes is a representation of the many stakes recovered after being tossed aside by groundskeepers. There are no little boxes of remains from Negro patients entombed at that site. The graves from the Negro cemetery that were moved to make way for the Rivers complex were respectfully reburied in order at another burial ground on campus. There are several cemeteries including the current one where patients are still being buried…not to hide abuse…but to respect their privacy which was thought of as more respectful at the time…Census records only gave initials…photos (and videos) that sought to exploit someones’ misfortunate circumstance…were and still are prohibited.
Jones, thanks for your response. The caption below the photo you speak of says the graveyard pictured is a representation. Though since this is featured around the information on Negro burials it may have been unclear. Thanks for the clarification, though.
I work at CSH in Plant Operations.
Many of the old buildings require some work, but most are sound enough to be repurposed. The pecan grove is lovely, and the buildings around it have more atmosphere and aesthetics than any modern office park. The railroad station houses a small museum of the hospital’s history.
Anyone interested in tracing a relative should contact hospital administration. I’ve seen record books (not the contents) that look as old as the hospital, so you should be able to find out what happened. (In the past, people from as far away as New York were admitted.)
Worked for Central State Hospital from 1962 until 1974. Worked in the Freeman Building for 14 months then worked in the Telephone Office there . Was not crazy about working in the Freeman Bldg but it was ok. Loved the telephone office. Then I transfered to DOAS with State gf Georgia in the office with Tommy Spivey. Worked in that office until I retired in 1996.
my grandmother barbara brown longshore died in the mental hospital in milledgeville georgia sometime in 1976. I would love to learn about her and her records from there. How would i get that information ?
Why has this not been presented to a respectful documentary film producer? Great historical story of early days of mental illness treatment! Hope someone will one day do a documentary film on this! Thanks for the great article and unknown background, even to those who grew up in Georgia, but didn’t know the history!
Sister did a semester there in psych rotation for Nursing School….Experience she will never forget! Thanks for the respectful but historical article. Getting lots of response comments to my facebook post. So many never knew the history, but had lots of relatives with connections to CSH, as patients, or worked there or did training there!
Joann, I’ve heard there is a small documentary in the works but there’s probably a larger story to be told. Thanks, we’re glad you enjoyed the article!
Martha Smith Solomon:
Shame that such a beautiful hospital has to be torn down. I was born in the Jones Building. My father worked at the hospital in the 1940s. At that time medical services were free to employees and their family. I have a great grandmother buried in one of the cemeteries. The people at the hospital helped to locate her. We placed a marker and some of our family puts flowers there on special occasions. I really hate to see the hospital go. Some of the early buildings are beautiful and hold many memories. May God Bless everyone who has passed through this hospital. Most of the people in Georgia has had some connection to Central State Hospital.
Martha, there are no plans as of now to tear the buildings down. But Jones is in bad shape as you can see in the photos.
Three of my four grandparents worked at CSH back in the 60s-80s, and my mom was an Operating Room R.N. at the Jones building for over 20 years. I used to come there after school some days and play in and wander the halls of the Jones Building. It was a really neat place. My Grandmother also worked there in timekeeping, and I’d visit her in her office for hours. So many memories there! Also, my sister was married at the Chapel of All Faiths on the grounds in 1996…….was a beautiful old church back then. What a great article about its history! I would really love to see a good documentary about the place that has so many memories for me and my family!
My great grandfather was railroaded to that place between 1940 and 1959 when he died there. I’m sure there are some good things that happened at this hole but for tens of thousands of poor souls, they would have macabre stories to tell that would make anyone’s blood curdle. What started as a pretty good idea in the early 1800’s turned into a concentration camp where murderers and rapists walked the halls and grounds and I’m not referring to just the patients. The proper way to find out or retrieve records for a past patient is to email the person in charge of this particular dept. and I don’t believe they even reply, even if this is the proper procedure. I called the number listed and I honestly believe the person that answered the phone was asleep just before they answered the phone, and definately did not care what I may have been calling about, much less helping me
As part of my nursing school training, I spent a rotation in 1961 at this hospital. We lived in a building run by trustee patients. My memories are still incredibly vivid of the patients and staff there. Some memories are very painful to recall, some are very poignant, some are funny. The students were used as staff. We had classes taught by nurses and trustee patients as assistants. Thorazine was just being used. I remember the patients lined up at the nurses station to receive the liquid medication. I also remember “shock” day when electrotherapy was performed like an assembly line. We were there for a couple of months, very long months. It was a valuable part of our education. A very special time.
Did this hospital not have to report deaths to the state the same as every other individual or institution did? I know for a fact that Grover Cleveland Coffey died there in 1940 but cannot find a death certificate anywhere.
My Great Grandfather John A. Nicholson died there and buried in grave #110 his son-my Grandfather Hubert L. Nicholson also died there and is buried in Blue Ridge, Ga.
Excellent article. I was a nurse at the hospital 1964 until 1988 then I finished 34 years of service with public health in 2000. It was an honor to minister to, care for and love the people with mental illnesses during the years I was there. Those were the years of great reform (not always for the better) and we had the largest census ever. Medications were beginning to be used, lobotomies had just ceased, electroshock treatments were given every day (early on without medication). Those were the best years of my life and my career. Sooo many great memories.
This article is extremely thought-provoking and eye-opening. I remember my mother, a nurse who worked at Central State for more than 30 years, talking about the Powell building all the time. The story about the slave grave is appauling and sad. So much to digest from this research you’ve shared…
Dawson ray harris:
MY LIFE BEGAN AT CENTRAL STATE HOSPITAL IN THE JONES BLDG. THE HOSPITAL AND GROUNDS BECAME LIKE A SECOND HOME FOR ME. I ENJOYED MOVIES AS A BOY IN THE GYM SOMESTIMES WITH PATIANTS SOMETIMES ON SAT. FOR THE CHILDREN AROUND THE HOSP. MY FIRST JOB WAS CARRING THE ATLANTA JOURNAL NEWSPAPER ALL AROUND AND IN THE HOSP. ONE FAVORITE THING WAS TO SLIDE DOWN THE BANISTER IN THE POWELL BLDG AFTER CLIMBING TO THE TOP FLOOR TO DELIVER MY PAPERS, THE SIDEWALK WAS OUR SKATE RINK OF THE TIMES, THE BALL FIELD BEHIND THE WHITTLE AND CABINESS BLDG. WAS A FAVORITE PLACE TO WATCH THE MILLEDGEVILLE BASEBALL TEAM PLAY. AT TIMES I WOULD CLIMB THE FENCE IN LEFT FIELD AND GO TO MY GRANDFATHERS HOUSE, ONE TIME I GOT HUNG ON THE SHARP CHAIN LINK FENCE IN MY WRIST AND A PATIENT HAD TO LIFT ME UP SO I COULD GET DOWN. THE KITCHENS HAD BLOCK ICE ON THE PORCHES AND I RUINED MY TEETH EATING ICE FROM THEM. I ATE MANY MEALS IN THE CSH KITCHENS SINCE MY DADDY WAS A COOK FOR DIFFERANT BLDGS. IN THOSE DAYS. I WAS ALLOWED TO WATCH A PAITENT BEING IMBALMED, MY NEIGHBOR WAS IN CHARGE AND ALLOWED ME TO WATCH, NOT A GOOD IDEA AT THAT AGE I WAS IN THE DARK RIDING MY BICYCLE BY THE TIME HE FINISHED BOY WAS I SCARED, I CRIED ALL THE WAS UP TO WHERE THE STREET LIGHTS WERE IN FROMT OF THE CENTER BLDG. I SAW THE TRAIN COME IN AND PICK UP PINE BOXES WITH DEAD PATIENTS BEING SHIPPED HOME, I BOUGHT ICE CREAM FROM THE WINDOWS IN THE STORES IN MOST ALL THE BLDGS. WHEN I COULD COME UP WITH A NICKLE. I SAW PATIENTS SO MENTAL THEY HAD TO BE LOCKED IN A ROOM WITH ONLY A MATTRESS, THEY WOULD TEAR THAT UP IN A SHORT TIME. THANK GOD FOR MEDICATION TO END THOSE DAYS. MY FIRST JOB AFTER THE AIR FORCE WAS AN ATTENDANT AT CSH, FOR A FEW DAYS IN THE WHITTLE BLDG, WAS TERRIABLE, THEY SENT ME TO SCHOOL LIKE AN AID AND AFTER THAT I WAS MOVED TO THE JONES BLDG WHERE PATIENTS WERE SENT TO BE CARED FOR FOR SICKNESS AND TO DIE. I TRIED SEVERAL JOBS AFTER THAT AND ALL WAYS WOUND UP BACK AT CSH, I FINALLY LANDED A JOB IN THE T V SHOP REPAIRING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR PATIENT BENEFIT FUND. STAYED OVER 20 YRS AND STARTED MY OWN BUSINESS. THANK GOD FOR THE HOSPITAL, MY GREAT GREAT GRANDADDY WAS SENT THERE WITH HEART TROUBLE AND DIED THERE. MY WHOLE FAMILY MADE A LIVING THERE AND MOST ARE RETIRED FROM THERE. HOPE THIS IS INFORMATIVE IN SOME WAY . RAY HARRIS
I have reason to believe I was hospitalized for severe depression at the age of 9. This would have been 1958/59. is there any possibility I could find these records and would Milledgeville have been the only option for families with limited resources? Did Grady Hospital have a mental ward at that time?
I can’t believe that most of these comments glorify this institution. I have a great aunt who was sent there in the 60’s for depression and the stories she tells are absolutely horrifying. I was told that many of the female patients were raped by other patients and staff members. If they got pregnant they were held until the baby was delivered and they never saw the baby again. This happened to her and she has always wondered what they did with the babies. I do however appreciate the historical aspects of this article, but would love to see one done on the “unmentionables” that took place there.
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Stuart Davis Smith:
My grandmother, Mamie (Mayme) Christian Robertson, died there in 1954, and probably entered there in the late 1940’s. I would love to have any records of her (dates, diagnoses, treatment, etc.) for my family history. Her children are all dead. What do I need to do to get this if it still exists? Thanks so much!
Great information. My uncle was actually a patient. He died there in 1927. I am currently doing a family tree. Would it be OK for me to use your article, providing I give credit.
Feel free to link back to us, thanks!
Wow, how fascinating! I found a picture of the representation of graves on Pinterest and decided to Google CSH, finding your post. I wanted to learn more, having grown up hearing from my mother “Y’all are going to send me to Milledgeville!” when we aggravated her (we lived in Augusta, I now live close by in Macon). Thank you for the great article!
I was a music therapy intern in 1974 at CSH. At that time, Saralynn Latham was the director of 35 music therapists and there were 7 interns from all around the country. We were supplemented with a room in the Nurses Dorm, free meals, and a very small stipend split among us 7 interns. We worked about a month in each bldg. and spent a month with a guy who provided square dances and folk dancing instruction. We had our own little band and provided entertainment for the patients. At the conclusion of my internship was the beginning of deinstitutionalization where patients were placed according to the county they lived in to facilitate integrating patients back into their respective communities.
What a great learning experience I had at CSH! CSH was like a city with everything imagineable provided for patients and staff. I’m sure I did not see many of the atrocities that happened there, but like any city, life is what it is – some good and some not so good. For the most part, medications were just coming out to help people manage their mental challenges. After the institutions closed and people went to their respective homes, community mental health centers were more prevalent in patient care. But what I think is people were cared for in a mostly safe and enjoyable environment, whereas now they are lost in the cracks of society and are on the streets vulnerable, homeless and uncared for. Many of our mentally ill are now housed in prisons and jails, so all in all the institutional life of the mentally ill was more humane and better funded back then. Thank you for remembering CSH. Some of the music therapists that have worked there over the years are considering a type of reunion.
Thank you so much for your comments, Vicki. I passed them along to the CSH redevelopment staff and those interested in the place. This is a part of the story I haven’t heard before!
William C Jones:
I remember I was there for first time when I came to csh and stay at boland building it was back in 70 or 71 then they moved me allen building and I was in school in boland,I’m so glad got out from csh on 1972…But I have some bad memory for being there and it was very crazy to see strange things,but I will never forget as long I lived…
My aunt spent 10 years at Central State Hospital in Milledgeville from 1961-71.She died of smoking-related lung disease in 1996 and didn’t talk much about her stay there except that she knew a woman there who always liked how she hand-rolled her own cigarettes.
For anyone wanting to do research there are record books in the basement of the main building. They are separated by year with the name, reason, and the date of the committal. If your relative died there it also gives the date of death. I spent several hours trying to find a relative. It has to be done the old fashion way. You also have to make an appointment which will require the patience of Job and repeated request. It takes a while for them to get back to you.
Unfortunately much of the history will disappear soon. Word is spreading locally that the college will be transforming these buildings into more college grounds, dorms to be specific. GCSU apparently has already begun purchasing bits and pieces.
Jo Ann Capua (Ryder):
My mother passed away two years ago at the age of 85, and her stay (or should I say that she was locked up) for almost two months at this mental hospital was never let go by her. My mom was the many that received electrical shock treatment during the 1960’s. Mom was only 34 years old at the time, and all it took was a signature from my dad to put her there. My sisters and I saw first hand what this treatment did to our mother. It is a part of our lives. J
[…] Photo credits: http://themoonlitroad.com/central-state-hospital-milledgeville-georgia/ […]
David Walker, MD:
I was the clinical director of forensics for 5.5 years between 2003 & 2009. Staff during that time worked hard to improve the care of patients. Those years have been some of the most rewarding of my career. It was a privilege to have worked with many dedicated, caring people. I am proud of the care we provided to many of Georgia’s most vulnerable citizens.
My great grandmother (African American) died in this hospital in 1942. I petitioned for release of her records which only stated she died of “mental exhaustion.” Her body was shipped by railroad in a box to Washington, Wilkes County, GA. I am shivering with sadness and pain after reading this article.
[…] years ago today (well, the Monday before Thanksgiving) I woke up in the nut house, aka Milledgeville. The day before, I had attended a Rod Stewart concert. Pumped up on Quaaludes and who remembers […]
Robert Sherman Nix III:
These people were tortured and abused to death by whims of the Judge and the Medical providers and the legislators. The thing I say is right, as veiled behind a need to settle the minds of patients , the patients are invariably of certain religions and also either Blacks or Whites from the USA. The real madness is the crazy doctors pretending these people inherited disorders from the alien fallen angels to justify their own egotistical religious beliefs of creation and sin.
Looks like a place the Jinn would haunt and witness
Church of Genies
Letters to Leigh series of poetry
[…] Central State Hospital (CSH), Milledgeville, Georgia … – Central State Hospital in Milledgeville, GA – the tragic and heroic true story of one of the largest mental institutions in the United States…. […]
I spent the early 1980s of my mid-teen years in a private mental hospital in the town of Asheville, NC, for counseling and an education. The staff were very kind and nice there. One of the older staffers told me about growing up on the campus of the Central State Hospital of Milledgeville, GA, where her father was one of the treating doctors in attendance there. He was one of the few doctors who tried his best to make his tour there as comfortable as possible for his patients, staffers and family. One of her memories of being at Central State Hospital was whenever a patient attempted to run away from the hospital grounds, her mammy (a strong and hefty looking black woman) would always be there to comfort some of these poor and emotionally/mentally tortured souls with her open arms and soothe them, telling them everything was going to be okay and Jesus loved them so much because He had a soft spot for them too. She’d tell them, “Come to Mama! Come to Mama!” This almost always did the trick, especially if they had nowhere else to run or nobody to turn to.
I think Mother Teresa of Calcutta was right about why there’s so much sickness and despair with people and other relatives are left at places like Milledgeville, Camarillo, etc. People just don’t know how to love or are incapable of love.
Had I been in a place such as Milledgeville as a patient, I would do my best to make it a better place by befriending the staff and patients there, letting them know they too are loved.
Both of my paternal Grandparents died at the Milledgeville Hospital. My grandmother went insane when her 8 sons were all over seas during WWII. It was more than she could deal with.
My grandfather became senile in 1952 and almost killed his daughter. Only the intervention of my Father and two of his brothers stopped him.
CSH was the only place that was available during those times.
I believe my great grandfather (African American) died in this place in June 1925 based on his death certificate; signed by the Ga State Sanitorium. Is there a way to research former patients? I am saddened.
Me and my family recently visited this hospital and I haven’t been able to sleep my wife has captured an image of a young woman I believe she is sarah crider if any one can contact me on this it would help (phone number removed) thanks you must see to believe no jokes this is real
ANNABRINKLEY FORMELY / ANNISSA BRINKLEY:
CURRENTLY WAS A PATIENT AT THE HOSPITAL IN POWELL E BUILDING BK IN THE YEAR OF 1994 OF OCTOBER AND A GREEN WARRANT WAS SIGNED AGAINST ME AND IT I SAW THE PAPER DEPUTY PIERCE HAD IT SAID WJ WARTHEN AND EVA BRINKLEY AND THAT BERNICE TUCKER SIGNED AND LOIS DAVIS SIGNED AND STATED THAT WAS CORRECT BECAUSE THEY HATED ME AND WAS JEALOUS OF ME AND WHEN I SAW IT I COULDN’T BELIEVE IT THE WHITE GIRL IN THE HOSPITAL ROOM WITH ME AT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL I THINK WAS KKK WHITE AND SHE BLEED ALL OVER THE BATHROOM BK IN 1994 AND SHE IS STILL HARASSING ME AND GOING WITH BLACK MEN DRAY EM AND SHE HAS MURDERED MY CHILD HER AND MY DOUBLE S AND JHERRIE HEMBOINE EM AND LIBBY AND SANDRA WILEY HELENA HERMANSNIDERJR BECAUSE THEY HATE ME AND MOMA FOR WORKING FOR THEM BECAUSE THEIR KIDS AND REALY SNIDERS THEY JUST ME BUT THEY ARE WHITE AND CELESTE AND THEM SWITCHED MY CHILD IN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL AND SHE WILL NOT ADMIT SHADRIKA IS HERS AND SHE IS A HART HERSELF AND SHE HAS TAKEN TORCHER AND THEY HAVE KILLED OR SWITCHED SHADRIKA AGAIN EVEN IN SCHOOL THEY MURDERED MINE WHEN THEY TOOK HER TO THE NURSEY TO HELP RODNEY AND VANESSA AND PAULA SWAIN TO COVER UP THEIR HIV OR AID PROBLEM THEY HAD AND FINANCIAL PROBLEMS TO THE PEOPLE HAVE NOT STOPP FOLLOWING FROM THE WHITE VAN THAT THEY DROPPED ME BK OFF IN SANDEREVILLE AFTER THEY DIMISSED ME FROM THE POWELL TO FIND OUT I WAS PREGANT WITH BRITTANY NOW I HEARD TWANNA MOSS AND THE OTHERS IS TELLING FOLKS THAT SHE IS ME BUT HER GRANDMA CHILD IS HER MOTHERS AUNT AND SISTER AND SHE WAS TRYING TO MURDER ME TO KEPT IT QUITE THAT DREZ REALLY DADDY IS HERMAN SNIDER JR AND HE HAD GIVEN TWANNA AIDS I N THE HOSPITAL OR HIV HE WAS 9 LBS AND STILL HAD BE IN INTENSIVE CARE AND THEY PUT HIM ON PURPLE AND WHITE MILK ALIUMENTIUM MILK I HAD TRY TO HURT THE BABY AND MYSELF BECAUSE I LIKE TO LIFE BY MYSELF AND I JUST AFFORD A BABY AT 23 BK THEM BUT I ACCEPTED THING S AND THE HOSPITAL MADE A CHOICE TO AND I DIDNT EVEN KNOW IT AND IT WORRIED I KNEW SOMETHING WAS QWRONG BUT I DID NOT KNOW WHAT IT WAS I AM 45 NOW AND THE WHITE VAN I S STILL FOLLOWING ME AND EVEN IN OTHER STATED THAT I HAVE BEEN IN AND HEARD THE EMPLOYEE WAS TRYING TO SET ME UP OR MY MOM WITH DRAY EM AND VERON EM ONE SAID THE LADY WAS MARRIED TO ONE OF THE MEN AND WAS TRYING TO SEE WHO WOULD OR HAVE BEEN SLEEPING WITH ONE OF THEM A COLOR THING LIKE RED BONE AND THEY I S STILL AT ITPEOPLE HAVE GOTTEN MURDERED AND POLICE HAVE GOTTEN FIRED TO OR SUSPENDED AND THIS GUY WITH THESE BIG SNAKE AND A DISGUISE IS FOLLOWING ME TO HE IS A KKK WHITE TO AND THAT SNAKE IS IN 92 THROUGH50 DAILY OR HOURLY KKK HOMOPHONES OR LANDLINES NOTE AREA ORJUKI AREA THE TARRENT OR AKA OR NUGENT POLICE ITS ON THE NOTES I CAN TELL THE TRUTH AND THE WHITE GIRL IS JEALOUS OF ME BECAUSE SHE HAS AIDS AND A BABY BY A BLACK GUY AND HER PARENTS MIGHT BE TARRENT POLICE OR STACY ADDISON OR ARMAGDDEON OR LESTER OR HER 85 ALIAS NAME OR CELESTE WILEY OR MILLER OR HERMAN SNIDER JR THE TARRENT OR HELENA THEY HAVE THE NOTES AND THEY P ICTURES AND THEY HAVE BEEN LIEING BK AND FORTH AND HEARD CELESTEMILLER OR WILEY HELENA SNIDER OR ELLEN BOOKER OR ELENOR BOOKER ANNIE BRINKMAN MIGHT MIGHT HAVE LIED ON THE GREEN WARRANT AGAINST ME IN WARTHEN GEORGIA THE PLACE WAS SNIDER’S PLACE HAMBURG WARTHEN SAID BECAUSE MOST OF US WAS INFECTED WITH AIDA OF TOOTIE WAS INFECTED NOT SURE WHO FORGE BUT MY PHONE TO THE SHERIFF DEPT WAS NOT A PRANK AND MOMA AND WJ WAS ABOUT TO SHOT OR MURDER ME THE OLD PHONE NUMBER WAS 9125525965 CHANGED 4785525969AND THE SNIDERS’ OLD NUMBER WAS 9125522332 HELENA SUPPOSELY HAD A JOB OVER AT CENTRAL STATE AS A DIETIAN BUT TO ME SHOULD HAVE BEEN A PATIENT THEIR SAID SHE OR TWANNA OR PEGGY TELLING FOLKS THEY WERE ME AND MY OWN MOMMA EVEN LIED TO YOU I AM IN ARIZONA TYPING THIS TO YALL I KEEP IN TOUCH WITH MOMA BUT SHE LIEING SOMEWHERE AND SHE IS HER MIND I GUESS LIES TAKE YOU DOWN B UT THE TRUH KEEPS YOU UP AND GOING CELESTE MOMMA’ OLD PHONE IS 9125521566 4785521566 SANDERSVILLE GEORGIA OFFICER WONKA A FAGGIE OR MADEMMEZELL I BELIEVE NOT SURE SHADRIKA’ REAL DAD CELESTE DOES HAVE TWO OTHER OLDER BOYS ……… I FEEL ADMINISTRATION NEEDS TO TO TALK TO THEM FOLKS I MENTION I N MY COMMENTS
ANNISSA BRINKLEY / ANNA bRINKLEY`
j w yon[yawn]:
eliza yawn, was there for about 40 years, she died there. 1951. my 5 time great grand mother’s daughter. I would like to know what was wrong with here, she was put there after her mother nelly-Nellie yawn died, about 1905.
I am doing research on my family tree. I had an aunt who spent probably 50 years at Central State. Is there any way to get her records since the hospital has closed?
I was emergency room orderly on 3-11 shift in the Jones building ’68. Took psych rotation there in ’73 for my nursing degree. My grandmother died in the nursing home facilities there. CSH is a historic part of Milledgeville, the state of Georgia, and the south in general. Preservation of this site should be done before it is forgotten.
When I tell people that I am from Milledgeville the first question I get asked is ” is that where all the crazy people live
” my answer is ” nope crazy people live everywhere in the world” lol. My granny & grandmama worked there til they retired. Zena Page & Lola Cook
T.Phillips (bottoms daughter):
My deddy worked there for quite some time. He transported patients. I remember going to visit him at work and he would tell me about all the stories of CSH. Its crazy to hear about how bad it really was back in the day. I remember on the snow days we did have we would go out into the pecan field and roll down the hill(:
I was diagnosed with a sch. disorder while being a meddic in the army in 1982 (probably pts) and received an honorable discharge, type retirement(50% base pay with all the benefits of any retired personnel). Couldn’t hold a job for long after that, six months here a month there, very difficult times. In my mind i was hounded by malevolent beings in the spirit world that said and did insidious things to torment me. I never thought it was coming from the people around me always considered anybody who actually got caught up in it to be manipulated and basically forgave them. Since i was never of a violent nature there was never a cause for admittance at CSH. They tried once back in the early nineties. Admitted me on a Friday and had to release me on a Monday. Very unusual for them not to hold a person five days. Legal issues were in my favor.There were no drugs, or alcohol, and I was sound and non violent. Never will know why two people signed me in like that, I can only imagine they thought i was on drugs or something because they heard or saw me screaming at the darkness. LOL I met a psychologist in a night club when i was twenty five, we dated we fell in love and married. I went to work at CSH as a Health Service tech/ CNA. and held that job for fifteen years. Everyday of my life tormented by the condition. Everyday rewarded through helping the clients be less miserable, I was their Brother their Father their son, always a friend, we were the only family some of them had. We fought those illnesses and Demons together and we won in more ways than you could imagine. Central State hospital was up and running in the late 80’s and into the 90’s, medical restraints and physical restraints were outlawed. We took the barred steal doors of the seclusion rooms and hauled them out of the buildings. Personnel had to stay in arms reach of violent people and keep them from hurting themselves or getting hurt by them( i took some punches, some kicks, and a skin tear or two) as did many other employees. It was nothing to have a man run at you with a chair or try to throw a bed, Tv or anything they could get their hands on, you safely took it out of their hands, you stepped aside, you blocked, and moved away quickly. I said: Its me Mr. Such and such its me, a thousand times to calm a person down. I was able to stand respectfully close and speak as a friend to bring them back to their right minds, let them know somebody cared. It didn’t matter if they thought aliens were landing in the front yard I made sure they knew I wouldn’t let them get to my friend and never completely gave in to the psychosis they were caught up in. One of my jokes about it all is: If you don’t put that Nurse down you are not getting any chocolate pudding(works every time).It was my job to be aware of each individuals personal needs, to tell the nurses what was going on with them, to describe how they expressed their feelings, what behavior they exhibited to Doctors and insure we were doing everything we knew how to help them. I heard many horror stories about the State from a hundred years ago until today. I saw a much different place, I saw a place where people struggled against a horrid oppressing darkness called mental illness. God as my witness it was not in vain.
If it is torn down what will happen to the grave site? What about the people who are buried there? Martha Soloman…what about our grandmother? Loisiana Brown Meeks?
In 1969/1970 my college psychology class went on a field trip to Central State Hospital. We observed patients begging not to be given shock treatments which was so upsetting to me. The actual shock treatment that we observed was horrific. I was so shocked when one patient I recognized was a middle school classmate who had been in the “special” class at Tubman Junior High in Augusta, Ga.. The special class was for “slower” learning students. In just a few short years she had gone from innocence to a terrifying experience as a resident at this institution. I know these folks were only trying to help but I left in tears and opted out on future visits! I am now 63 and still think about that field trip.
Jan Travis-Pees (maiden name as Holsey):
I have a photo of my great grandfather on the steps of the male convalescent building taken around 1900. He worked there as an orderly . The picture is of a group of male employees all in uniform. Their caps all had GLA on them that stood for Georgia Lunatic Asylum.
This was a very good article. I do believe many of the horrific stories are either exaggerated or from misunderstood situations. As part of our psychiatric training, we nursing students spent a rotation at CSH. (1960s) I remember when we went to a new building, we were given a set of keys and a deck of cards.
There are events that took place that could easily be misunderstood or mis-interpreted as abusive/neglegent/mistreatment – bath day for instance – but routines and procedures were in place that were necessary to get the job done in the best possible manner for the safety and well-being of the patients. I never witnessed any abuse or mistreatment of any patient. The staff were there because they wanted to be there – not for the pay or recognition – and they sincerely cared for the patients.
Patients ate the same good food that was provided for staff (and us nursing students.) Some patients did work in the gardens and greenhouses – CSH grew most of the food consumed there – because they wanted to and enjoyed the work. Programs were plentiful – picnics, dances, reality orientation to name just a few. Common rooms held ping-pong tables and checkers, chess and cards were favorite pastimes. They did quilting and pottery – there was even a store where they could sell their items. I still have a teapot one of the patients made.
Some patients really were confined to cells with nothing but a mattress, but these patients were severely demented and a danger to everyone. The “cages” children were kept in were nothing more than a screen placed over the top of their cribs to keep them from climbing out – and they were not used for every child.
Who were the patients? Those who were profoundly retarded, those with mental disorders, with dementia, men and women whose families could not handle them for whatever reason, out of control alcoholics or drug addicts. CSH provided a safe place for them…and for society.
Where are these patients today – now that ‘the powers that be’ have determined that these people have the right to be in the mainstream of society? In jails. Homeless. Committing crimes – assault, burglary, murder.
A friend has a teen-age son who is so troubled from a very young age. He has threatened the family to the point they sleep with their bedroom door locked. He has been in and out of trouble with the law. He has held my friend with a knife to her throat. He desperately needs help but there is none to be had. There is no longer a place for people like this, and countless others we are reading about who go on a rampage and kill a bunch of people. The police tell them they can’t do a thing until he hurts (or kills) someone…then they can put him in prison.
What kind of sense does this make? We need CSH – many of them. Some people just don’t need to be, can’t function in society. There needs to be a place for them – a place like Milledgeville!
My Grand mother worked at this hospital…This gives me the heeby jeebys